Have you heard of the anti-aging supplement Protandim? Maybe you saw a Youtube video of when Protandum was featured on ABC’s PrimeTime news show a few years ago? Either way, Protandim, called an “Nrf2 activator” is said to be the “only supplement clinically proven to reduce oxidative stress in humans by an average of 40 percent in 30 days.” That’s fancy talk that basically means that Protandim is a type of antioxidant supplement. Unlike other products however, Protandim is said to work by helping the body increase its own natural antioxidant enzymes. Sounds good, but does Protandim work or is it scam? These are some of the questions I want to address in this Protaindim review. The good thing about Protandim is that there are actual, published peer reviewed research studies on this product. I will use that research in this review and try to put it in context. My hope is that by the end of this, you’ll have a better idea whether Protandim is right for you.
What is Protandim
Protandim might sound like a drug but it’s really a dietary supplement that is said to combat free radical damage (oxidative stress) by stimulating the production of the body’s own natural antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione. So, instead of taking individual antioxidant supplements (like vitamins C, E, etc.) in the hopes that they will battle free radicals and combat aging and disease, Protandim is supposed to ramp up your own naturally occurring free radical defenses.
The product website (Protandim.com) says that Protandim is “clinically proven to reduce oxidative stress to levels of that of a 20-year-old.” Oxidative stress refers to the stress (cellular damage) caused by free radicals. Protandim is made in the US but is not organic or kosher.
Who makes Protandim?
Protandim is a product of a company called LifeVantage Corporation. LifeVantage is actually a publically-traded stock on the NASDAQ. Its stock symbol is LFVN.
To contact LifeVantage, their website lists this address: 9815 S. Monroe Street, Suite 100 Sandy, UT 84070. The picture of this address looks like the building shown on the Protandim.com website; however from the Google Street view I’ve listed, it seems to be under construction —as does most of the area. I’m guessing this is an older picture of the area.
To contact LifeVantage by phone, the website lists this number: 1.866.460.7241.
Interestingly, the Better Business Bureau lists two different addresses for LifeadVantage; they list the address above, as well as this: 1449 W Littleton Blvd Ste 200, Littleton, CO 80120-2127. This address appears to be some sort of a store or restaurant that is no longer in business.
Either way, the BBB gives LifeVantage a rating of “A-” as of 10/26/12.
According to the product’s website, Protandim is composed of these 5 ingredients:
1. Milk thistle extract containing 80% silymarin
2. Bacopa extract containing 45% bacosides
3. Ashwagandha root powder
4. Green tea extract containing 98% polyphenols
5. Turmeric extract containing 95% curcumin
I’m guessing the name “Protandim” was chosen because these ingredients are supposed to “pro-actively” work “in-tandim” to help defend us against aging and disease. That’s my theory anyway.
On the FAQ page of the product website, it’s said that the special way in which Protandim is made means that people would not get the same benefits if they just took each ingredient individually. As “proof” of this, they state that
“A scientific peer-reviewed study shows that Protandim produces a 300 percent increase in the antioxidant glutathione.”
But, they don’t tell us the name of that study or where we can find it. So I Googled “Protandim glutathione” and discovered that they are referring to a test tube study published in 2009 and not a study of humans. I will list this study in my review of Protaindim research below.
It turns out that I’ve already looked each of the ingredients in Protandim as they are also ingredients of other products. For example, for more information on:
- Milk thistle, see my review of the testosterone booster, Syntheroid.
- Ashwagandha, see my review of Mdrive, a supplement for men over 40.
- Bacopa, see my review of the weight loss supplement 1Db Goddess.
- Green tea, see my review of Mega T Green Tea.
- Tumeric, see my review of the joint pain supplement Tissue Rejuvenator.
As such, I won’t reinvent the wheel, by covering those ingredients again. Instead, let’s look at the actual scientific research on Protandim itself because I feel this will help people get a better perspective of the product.
Protandim is different from a lot of supplements because there really is published, peer reviewed research on the product. Below is a summary of the Protandim research I uncovered with links to these studies for those who want to see them for themselves.
Because the names of scientific studies can be, wordy and difficult to understand, I will summarize the study and put the research in proper context.
I’m also going to break the studies down by year of publication because I noticed something interesting when as I was reading through the research. I’ll discuss this observation in the “My thoughts” section below.
2013 Protandim research
On January 2 2013, LifeVantage announced a new peer reviewed study on Protandim. The name of the study is Upregulation of phase II enzymes through phytochemical activation of Nrf2 protects cardiomyocytes against oxidant stress and it appears in the Nov 30th issue of the journal, Free Radical Biology and Medicine. In a nutshell, this study noted that treatment of mouse heart cells with Protandim increased production of an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory enzyme called Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) as well as Nrf2.
This was not a human study but rather, basically a test tube study using isolated mouse heart cells.
It appears that this study is actually derived from the Master’s Thesis in 2010. The title of the MS Thesis is “UPREGULATION OF HEME OXYGENASE-1 AND ACTIVATION OF NRF2 BY THE PHYTOCHEMICALS IN PROTANDIM .” It is not unusual for a quality MS thesis or other graduate work to go through the peer review process and be published.
2012 Protandim research
Study Name: Antioxidants for the Treatment of Patients with Severe Angioproliferative Pulmonary Hypertension? Published in the journal, Antioxidants in Redox Signaling.
Summary: This is a rat study. Protandim increased antioxidant enzymes in rats, protecting the hearts from damage.
Study Name: Phytochemical activation of Nrf2 protects human coronary artery endothelial cells against an oxidative challenge published in the journal, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.
Summary: This is a test tube study. Coronary artery cells were treated with Protandim. The concentration of Protandim was 20 micrograms per milliliter or placebo (ethanol). All cells were then treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to induce free radical damage. Cells treated with Protandim showed less cell death than those getting the placebo.
Study Name: Protandim does not influence alveolar epithelial permeability or intrapulmonary oxidative stress in human subjects with alcohol use disorders. Published in the American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.
Summary: This study showed that Protandim did not work. This was a strange study. Researchers looked at 30 people who abused alcohol. The researchers stuck tubes down the throats of the subjects to take fluid samples from their lungs. They randomly gave the people 1350 mg of Protandim per day or a placebo, for a week. They tested for various things to see if Protandim helped the people. It didn’t.
Personally, I don’t know how relevant this study is to whether Protandim works or not. I mentioned it because it was a human study. For a much more in-depth review of this study—written by a doctor—see the Protandim review posted on ScienceBasedMedicine.org.
2011 Protandim research
Study Name: Oxidative stress in health and disease: the therapeutic potential of Nrf2 activation. Published in the journal, Molecular Aspects of Medicine.
Summary: This is a test tube study. The summary of the study I liked to says that Protandim altered cellular pathways involved in not only antioxidant enzyme production but also those involved in colon cancer, cardiovascular disease (heart disease) and Alzheimer’s disease. But, humans are more complicated than isolated cell cultures. This study doesn’t prove Protandim reduces the risk of any of these diseases.
Study Name: The role of manganese superoxide dismutase in skin cancer. Published the journal, Enzyme Research.
Summary: This is a mouse study. I found this study strange because, for the most part, it appears to be a review of previous research relating free radical damage to the development of skin cancer. The actual study isn’t even discussed until you have read half of the paper—and then it’s only a vague description of the research. In the study, researchers reported that Protandim reduced tumor growth in mice. But, how much Protandim did the mice get? If that information is in the study, I could not find it.
Study Name: Protandim attenuates intimal hyperplasia in human saphenous veins cultured ex vivo via a catalase-dependent pathway. Published in the journal Free Radical Biology and Medicine.
Summary. This is a test tube study. In this investigation, Protandim was cultured with the saphenous vein (a vein in the leg that is used in heart bypass grafts). Researchers noted that Protandim reduced the thickening of vein cells. This, in turn, helps the veins last longer, which is good for those who have bypass grafts.
Note. When I say “test tube study” I’m making a general reference to any study that’s not conducted on lab animals or humans and involves cells that are isolated from the body from which they were taken. Test tube studies are valuable, but they may not represent what goes on in human or animal bodies.
2010 Protandim research
Study Name: The Dietary Supplement Protandim Decreases Plasma Osteopontin and Improves Markers of Oxidative Stress in Muscular Dystrophy Mdx Mice. Published in the Journal of Dietary Supplements.
Summary. This is a mouse study. Mice that were genetically created to have muscular dystrophy were given Protandim at a dosage that was similar to what LifeVantage recommends for humans. After 6 months of use, the mice that were given Protandim showed a 46% reduction in the free radical breakdown of fat (this is called TBARS in the study. TBARS stand for Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances). The greater the TBAR level, the greater free radical damage. Thus, reducing TBARS is taken to be a good thing.
Study Name: The chemopreventive effects of Protandim: modulation of p53 mitochondrial translocation and apoptosis during skin carcinogenesis. Published in the journal PLoS One.
Summary: This is a mouse study. Interestingly the word “mouse” never appears in the summary of this study. You have to read the actual study to see that it used lab mice. Protandim reduced damage to the mitochondria of the mouse cells.
The mitochondria, often called the “powerhouse” of the cell, makes energy —and makes free radicals in the process. The mitochondria is a major area of anti-aging research.
Summary. This is a rat study. Researchers wanted to see if Protandim helped pulmonary blood pressure. After 6 weeks, Protandim did not reduce pulmonary artery blood pressure or the number of lung lesions.
The researchers did say that “our data point to a cardioprotective effect of Protandim.” But, this is a vague statement. Here’s why:
In the study, the researchers list 4 things that they say Protandim did— but nowhere in that list did I see the word “significant.”
The omission of this word is huge because it could mean that the effects observed might not necessarily be due to Protandim.
Some may say I am nitpicking here, however the holy grail of scientific research are effects that are deemed “significant” —in other words, effects that are not due to random chance. The omission of the word “significant” reduces the importance of this study in my opinion.
2009 Protandim research
Study name: Protandim, a fundamentally new antioxidant approach in chemoprevention using mouse two-stage skin carcinogenesis as a model. The study was published in the journal PLoS One.
Summary: This is a mouse study.
Study name: Synergistic induction of heme oxygenase-1 by the components of the antioxidant supplement Protandim. This study was published in the journal Free Radical Biology and Medicine.
Summary: This is a test tube study. Cells treated with Protandim showed significant increases in glutathione, an antioxidant compound. This is the study that LifeVantage lists as “proof” that Protandim increases glutathione levels by 300%. It may raise glutathione 300% in a test tube, but what about in people? As far as I can tell, there is no proof of this.
This study is also cited as the “proof” LifeVantage lists as to why people can’t save money by just taking the individual ingredients in Protandim.
2006 Protandim research
This is a human study. In this investigation, 39 healthy men and women, age 20-78 years were given Protandim (675 mg per day) for between 30 and 120 days.
1. Protandim caused a significant increase in the antioxidant superoxidant dismutase (SOD) in red blood cells.
2. A non-significant rise in uric acid. Uric acid, besides being bad for gout, is an antioxidant. Might Protandim have raised uric acid levels as a result of its ability to increase antioxidant enzymes? I don’t know.
3. No change in CRP levels was seen.
4. No change in HDL, LDL or triglycerides were seen.
5. Interestingly, greater free radical breakdown of fat (higher TBAR levels) were seen in those who took the antioxidant supplements vitamin C and E than those who did not. In other words, antioxidant vitamins did not help, but were in fact, bad for the people!
The finding that antioxidant supplements might be bad for us is not new. Other research has shown antioxidant supplements reduce the body’s natural antioxidant defenses.
Note in the study above, Protandim didn’t reduce CRP levels. CRP is a measure of cellular inflammation. I feel this reduces claims by distributors that Protandim reduces inflammation.
My thoughts on the Protandim research
After looking over the Protandim studies, 4 things occurred to me that I wanted to point out:
First. Out of 12 Protandim studies I found, only 2 were conducted on humans. These studies are:
- The 2006 study (click to see study)
- The 2012 study (click to see study)
All other Protandim research has been conducted in either test tubes or lab mice or rats.
Also, of those two studies, the 2012 study noted that Protandim didn’t work. That leaves only 1 human trial (from 2006) showing Protandim might be beneficial to humans.
Here is a summary of Protandim research by year
Second. This is what jumped out at me when I looked at the research. The earliest (and presumably the first) Protandim study I found was from 2006. That study was conducted in humans. Why then, did researchers abandon humans and opt instead for investigating the effects of Protandim in mice and test tubes? This makes no sense to me. There is a 6 year gap between human trials. Why?
Third. 1 human trial, lab animal and test tube research seems to show that Protandim elevates antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, SOD and glutathione. But, does that mean this slows aging or reduces the risk of disease?
I don’t know the answer to this but since thousands of people are taking Protandim —and have been taking it for at least 6 years— we would have a good idea if it helps people or not if LifeVantage conducted surveys of the people who took it. I don’t see any research like that —and that is very disappointing to me.
Even better would be to take blood samples from a random selection of Protandim users over the course of the last few years. This would give valuable information on how effective Protandim is. LifeVangage is a publically traded stock. They can afford to do this.
In this Protandm press release, LifeVangate states that they made over 20 million dollars first fiscal quarter that ended September 30, 2011. That’s a 200% increase over the previous year period.
I’d rather have seen LifeVantage spend the last 6 years doing that kind of research than looking at how Protandim worked in test tubes or mice with muscular dystrophy!
Let me be clear. I am not trying to slam Protandim with these statements. I believe my criticisms are just and based on the fact that LifeVantage started with human trials, and then switched to non-human trials for the next 6 years! Again, why?
Fourth. LifeVantage says that just taking the individual ingredients in Protandim does not give the same benefits as taking Protandim itself. Where is the proof of this? I can’t find a single study that compared Protandim use, to just taking the ingredients in Protandim. An advantage of taking 1 pill is that its more efficient, but is it better?
Protandim and multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is caused by damage to the protective covering of nerve cells. While the process of the damage is due to an autoimmune disorder (the immune system attacks a part of the body – in this case the nerve cells), this damage is thought by some to be the result free radicals. Some have put forth the idea that disruption of free radical stress – via stabilizing Nfr2 (the stuff Protandim is supposed to augment) might help MS.
So is there any proof that Protandim helps MS? While I was not able to discover any published research, I was informed of an investigation that was presented in 2011 at the 5th Joint triennial congress of the European and Americas Committees for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The title of the presentation was: Nrf2 activators: a novel strategy to promote oligodendrocyte survival in multiple sclerosis?
Oligodendrocytes (oly-go-den-dro-sites) form the protective covering of nerve cells― the covering that is destroyed in MS.
In this study, researchers treated rat and human oligodendrocytes with several compounds ― one of which was Protandim ― and then exposed the cells to a chemical to create free radical damage.
The researchers wanted to see which compound increased Nfr2 related antioxidant enzymes the most in response to the free radical chemical exposure. These researchers noted that Protandim was seen as “the most potent inducer” of Nfr2 antioxidant enzymes defenses.
This is an intriguing study but it does not seem to have been published yet. Published studies tend to carry more weight than unpublished research.
There is also some evidence that stimulating Nfr2 antioxidant pathways might reduce cellular inflammation via inhibition of NFkb. Inhibition of NFkb is also something that another supplement – called Anatabloc – is supposed to do. If this is true, might a cocktail of Protandim and Anatabloc help multiple sclerosis symptoms? I am, of course, highly speculating here, but it’s an interesting question that I hope someone looks at. For more, see my Anatabloc review.
Another herbal anti-inflammation supplement I’ve reviewed is Zyflamend so see this review for additional information.
Protandim and Primetime
In 2005 Protandim was featured on ABC’s Primetime news show. In that segment, ABC correspondent John Quinones met with Dr. Joe McCord, who is one of the main Protandim researchers. Dr. McCord is a respected researcher and is an employee of LifeVantage and appears at many LifeVantage distributor events. According to his Wikipedia page, as a grad student, Dr. McCord was involved with the seminal discovery of Superoxide Dismutase, an important free radical savaging enzyme. He is also a contributing author of many of the Protandim studies listed above.
In the Primetime Protandim segment, John Quinones gets a blood test to measure his TBAR level (an indicator oxidative stress). He’s given Protandim for 2 weeks and then returns to the lab where he has his blood tested again. Dr. McCord tells John Quinones that Protaindim caused a “45% reduction” in oxidative stress and goes on to say that this is the level seen in a “newborn baby”.
Impressive, but here’s my problem: John Quinones has his blood tested by people who have an association with LifeVantage—the company that sells Protandim!
I have no reason to suspect anything fishy went on with the results, however, I would have liked it if ABC had John Quinones’s blood tested by an independent laboratory too.
Having the people who have an association with Protandim do the blood tests is just bad science in my opinion because it opens the door to criticisms of conflict of interest. I’m disappointed that Primetime producers missed this important point.
Question: Since 2005, have any independent labs tried to reproduce the results of the Primtime news show? In other words, give Protandim to somebody for 2 weeks and measure TBAR levels before and after Protandim use?
The ABC PrimeTime video seems to be an important part of Protandim distributor marketing. At one YouTube video I saw, a Protandim distributor tells his team “Don’t Sell Protandim” but rather “share the video” —The ABC PrimeTime video—rather than trying to explain the complex science of Protandim. To me, this means that some Protandim distributors are basically trying to piggyback on the credibility of ABC’s Primetime — and John Quinones. As I’ve already pointed how however, this video segment has a major scientific flaw.
The ABC Primetime video appears to be so popular of a selling point that there is even a website called “ABCLiveIT.com” which has no association with ABC or the Primetime Live TV show. The site appears to be for general Protandim educational purposes rather than one created by a protandim distributor. I attempted to determine who created the site but the creators name is private. The website was created on Sept 9th 2011, several years after the ABC Primetime video first aired.
Protandim and Donny Osmond
Donny Osmand is a paid spokesperson for Protandim. On the Protandim.com site, it says that before Donny tried Protandim, that he ran it past his doctor—Dr. Dan Royal— who conducted his own research. It says that:
” The doctor wanted to study it for himself and perform his own tests to determine its validity and effectiveness. His testing verified Protandim, and his perception changed from skepticism to advocacy.”
But, where is Dr. Royal’s research published? I didn’t see any Protandim research with his name on it. If anybody knows the journal where this research is published, please tell me and I will amend my review.
In a 2011 YouTube Video on Protandim Dr. Royal gives a PowerPoint presentation of his research called “Protandim: A Medical Discovery”. His research appears to be based only 10 people. That’s not a lot.
What struck me in the PowerPoint presentation was at the time Dr. Royal was running a 6- month “study” / Challenge where people could enroll in the study to see if Protandim worked.
To enroll in the “study” people had to :
- Pay a $100 “administrative fee” for a nutrition assessment.
- Pay about $1900 for SpectraCell Micronutrient test.
- Take Protandim daily “as prescribed by a doctor” —but wait, Protandim doesn’t need a prescription. I take that to mean that Dr. Royal might be a Protandim distributor. If that’s correct, he would receive commissions on the Protandim he “prescribes.”
- Pay another $1900 for another SpectraCell Micronutrient test after 3-6 months.
- Pay a $160 co-pay for the Dr. visit (or $280 cash if no insurance).
In clinical research, study participants don’t have to pay for the tests that are conducted on them. On the contrary, study participants not only receive free medical tests, they are also even sometimes financially compensated for their participation.
As an aside, I’ll say that LifeVantage could easily do this study themselves and do it such that people wouldn’t have to pay anything. Remember that LifeVantage made over 20 million dollars — in just 3 months— in 2011.
For more on Protandim and Donny Osmond and Montel Williams etc., see the Protandim Wikipedia page.
Protandim side effects
I am not aware of anything bad happening from using Protandim and I think in the vast majority of people it’s likely very safe. That said, here are a few things that people might want to think about.
One study noted that Protandim might raise uric acid levels. Does that mean Protandim might be a problem for people with gout? I don’t know.
On the Protandim FAQ website they also warn against using the product if you are undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer. This is likely because of the unknowns of combinging antioxidants some cancer therapies. In addition, they stress the importance of talking to a doctor if you have any autoimmune disease like arthritis or Type I diabetes. I’m not aware of any problems with Protandim – in anyone – but I appreciated LifeVantage mentioning this.
How to measure your TBARS
Remember that TBARS are a measure of free radical damage (oxidative stress) of cells. Protandim is said to reduce TBARS.
The TBAR test is also called a Lipid Peroxidase’ test. It costs about $200 to have the test done by a doctor. For those who really want to know if Protandim is working or not, getting this test done first—and a month later— might be a good thing to do. I’m not sure if insurance covers the test or not. Talk to your doctor for more information on this.
There is a multi level marketing aspect to Protandim. As I’ve said in the past, this is not necessarily bad— especially if distributors do not have to pay a lot up front to join and don’t have to buy the product before its sold. I don’t know how much it costs to become a Protandim distributor. While I’m sure there are Protandim distributors who are making a lot of money, for those who are thinking about joining the program, I suggest they ask to see documents on how much the average Protandim distributor makes. That will give them a rough idea of how much they might make.
What is TrueScience Anti-Aging Cream?
As an aside, I wanted to touch on TrueScience Anti-Aging Cream as this is another product sold by LifeVantage. On LifeVantage.com they say this:
” Its powerful anti-wrinkle formula boosts six skin-rebuilding essentials and contains the 11 ingredients described as the most effective in improving skin tone, texture and appearance. Unlock the science of anti-aging and unlock the secret of a younger-looking you with TrueScience Anti-Aging Cream.”
While the statement above sounds impressive, its actually very vague. For example:
- “Skin building essentials” is meaningless. How does it build the skin and what makes the ingredients “essential?”
- Also, who “described” the 11 ingredients as “most effective?“
- “Unlock the science” makes no sense I didn’t see any scientific studies on TrueScience cream that proves it actually works.
Protandim has research, but even the LifeVantage website doesn’t show any published scientific proof for TrueScience Anti-Aging cream.
Protandim for dogs?
In January 2013, LifeVantage Canine Health was announced. According to the LifeVantage website, this product contains the same ingredients as Protandim – and it also has omega 3 fatty acids and collagen. The website goes on to say that:
“Reducing oxidative stress in dogs may reduce many of the disorders associated with aging in canine.”
While this may be possible, I have to ask the question, where is the proof? As can be seen from my summary of Protandim research above, there doesn’t seem to be any research of Protandim that used dogs. The LifeVantage website likewise does not list any studies showing that Protandim helps dogs either.
It’s possible that LifeVantage has unpublished research on the effects Protandim and dogs, horses and other animals. I’m not sure either way. I am not an expert on supplements for dogs or other animals, so I suggest speaking to a veterinarian who can likely give the best answer on whether Canine Health is right for your dog.
How much is Protandim?
According to the Protandim.com website, a one month supply (30 capsules) costs $50 retail. If you order it through a LifeVantage distributor, it costs $40. That means over the course of a year, Protandim will cost between $480 to $600. Shipping and tax may be extra. I can’t tell from the Protandim website.
For the Canine Heath Protandim, the LifeVantage site lists a price of $30 per month retail and $25 per month if you buy it through a Protandim distributor.
Did I try Protandim?
I did not try Protandim before I wrote this review because if I did try it and said “it worked” or “it didn’t work,” then my words would only be a testimonial. I think people deserve more than testimonials from individuals they don’t know, and so that’s why I prefer to focus only on the science of supplements.
That said, I was intrigued enough to test Protandim on myself, something I usually don’t do. If you read the comments, you will see how I challenged a Protandim distributor to give me a free month supply. I was going to pay for a battery of blood tests – including the TBAR test – before Protandim and after a month of taking it, to see if anything changed. I lost interest however after the distributor wanted to put stipulations on where I could get my blood work done. If I allowed this, then I would be making the same scientific flaw as ABC Primetime did.
So, does Protandim work?
This is the big question. While I’m very intrigued at the prospect of something that might slow down aging I’m not sure if Protandim works or not. Even though there are interesting studies on Protandim, I’ve got some questions about that research. For example, most of the evidence stems from test tube studies and lab animal research. Why LifeVantage chooses to not test Protandim in humans more I don’t know. I only see two human studies on Protandim since 2006 —and only 1 of those studies notes that it works. And as for the ABC PrimeTime segment on Protandim, that’s just poor science in my opinion. Does Protandim slow aging? Nobody knows. Does it lower the risk of diseases, like heart disease? Nobody knows this either.
In my opinion, if LifeVange is really serious about showing the world that Protandim works, they will begin a multi-year study where they follow a large, randomly chosen sample of current users—and non Protandim users—for the next several years, taking blood samples and having people complete health questionnaires on a regular basis. Eventually, patterns will start to show up on how effective Protandim really is.